Wednesday, August 6, 2008

Science Lessons FTCua 8

http://ftcuasciencelessons8.blogspot.com

CARBON SEQUESTRATION

http://cdiac2.esd.ornl.gov/

EERE DOE

A weekly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The EERE Network News is also available on the Web at: www.eere.energy.gov/news/enn.cfm

August 06, 2008
News and Events
DOE and USDA Award $10 Million for Cellulosic Biofuel Research
DOE to Save $13 Million in Annual Energy Costs at Four National Labs
DOE Pursues Zero-Net Energy Commercial Buildings
Housing Act Aims to Encourage Energy Efficient Mortgages
GM and Utilities to Study how Plug-In Hybrids Connect to the Grid
Assistant Secretary Alexander Karsner Announces Resignation
Energy Connections
Study Finds a Large Supply of Natural Gas in U.S. Shale Formations
News and Events
DOE and USDA Award $10 Million for Cellulosic Biofuel Research
DOE and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced last week their plans to award 10 grants, totaling more than $10 million, to accelerate fundamental research in the development of cellulosic biofuels. The grants will be provided through a joint DOE-USDA grant program that aims to accelerate fundamental research in biomass genomics and to further the use of cellulosic plant material for bioenergy and biofuels. The grant awardees include Colorado State University, the University of Massachusetts, Michigan State University, Pennsylvania State University, Purdue University in Indiana, and the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research in New York, in addition to Oregon State University and the University of Georgia, which are both receiving two grants. DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research will provide $8.8 million of the total funds for these awards, while USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service will provide $2 million. See the DOE press release.


Most of the new projects funded by DOE and the U.S. Department of Agriculture will focus on improving the performance of switchgrass. Enlarge this image.
Credit: Todd Johnson

Most of the awardees will be investigating ways to improve the performance of switchgrass, a fast-growing perennial grass that can be used to produce cellulosic ethanol. They'll be using a number of "model organisms"—simpler plants that can yield insight into the more complex switchgrass genome—including purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), foxtail millet, maize, and rice. One awardee will study the symbiotic relationship of switchgrass and soybeans to a fungi that boosts production, using model organisms like purple false brome and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), a simple legume. In addition, two awardees will be studying sunflowers and poplar, which can also be converted into biofuels, while one project will develop computation tools for making better use of existing genome data. See the full list of awardees, which includes links to abstracts on the work, on DOE's Genomics Web site.

DOE to Save $13 Million in Annual Energy Costs at Four National Labs
DOE announced on Monday that it has signed contracts for $140 million in energy efficiency improvements at four of its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The energy efficiency improvements will help DOE to save about $13 million on energy and energy-related costs per year. The contracts are the first ones signed under DOE's Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) initiative, which aims to have 7.5% of the energy used at all DOE facilities supplied by renewable sources by 2010. The TEAM initiative also seeks to reduce energy intensity by 30% and reduce water consumption intensity by 16% in all DOE facilities by 2015.

At Idaho National Laboratory, the energy source for the boiler will be changed, eliminating 600,000 gallons per year of fuel oil purchases to yield an annual savings of $1.7 million. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will receive an upgraded energy management control system, which will result in $1.3 million in savings per year. The National Energy Technology Laboratory will receive a variety of green upgrades, including biogas boilers, green roofs, hybrid lighting, advanced metering, solar lighting, rooftop wind turbines, and natural gas well dewatering, which will reduce energy consumption by more than 27 billion Btu per year and reduce water use by more than three million gallons, resulting in approximately $800,000 in savings per year. And on top of implementing other general energy conservation measures, a biomass steam plant will be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, allowing for nearly $8.7 million in savings per year.

The energy efficiency improvements will be installed under Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs), under which energy service companies or utilities provide the funding required to purchase equipment and system enhancements for an organization, and are paid back from the energy savings that result from increased energy efficiency. Over one billion pounds of carbon dioxide can be avoided by the potential ESPC projects currently in development at DOE. This is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from more than 83,000 vehicles. See the DOE press release and the TEAM Initiative Web site.

DOE Pursues Zero-Net Energy Commercial Buildings
DOE launched the Zero-Net Energy Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) on Tuesday, with the goals of developing new commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use and making these buildings marketable by 2025. Such zero-net energy commercial buildings will minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy efficiency technologies and will meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. To help with the CBI, DOE has also formed the National Laboratory Collaborative on Building Technologies (NLCBT), which will allow DOE and five of its national laboratories to work closely on the research, validation, and commercialization priorities that are critical to the success of zero-net energy buildings. Argonne National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will be working together under the NLCBT.

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, signed by President Bush in December 2007, authorized DOE to collaborate with its national laboratories, other federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to advance high-performance commercial green buildings. With help from the NLCBT, DOE's Building Technologies Program will carry out the intent of that act through the new CBI and its existing partnerships, including such efforts as developing new technologies, sponsoring pilot and demonstration projects, providing technical assistance, developing training materials, working with organizations that set building codes, analyzing incentives, developing ways to measure energy savings, and educating the public. In 2005, commercial buildings accounted for 18% of U.S. energy use as well as 18% of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions.

The new initiative and collaboration were announced at the California Clean Tech Open, a competition that supports innovative and sustainable new businesses which focus on energy efficiency, smart power, renewable energy, transportation, green building technologies, pollution control, and resource management. NREL is providing $100,000 to the California Clean Tech Open on behalf of DOE and NLCBT to facilitate initiation and development of a green buildings award category under the competition. See the DOE press release and the Web sites for the DOE Buildings Technologies Program and the California Clean Tech Open.

Housing Act Aims to Encourage Energy Efficient Mortgages
President Bush signed the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 into law on July 30, and while the act is focused primarily on addressing the mortgage crisis in the United States, it also includes measures to encourage the greater use of energy efficient mortgages (EEMs). Such mortgages allow people to purchase or refinance their principal residence and incorporate the cost of energy efficiency improvements into the mortgage. But while the idea is laudable, the implementation of it is difficult, as the borrower must first receive a home energy rating report, usually from an energy consultant, and the report must demonstrate that the energy efficiency improvements are cost effective. After the loan closes, the money for the improvements is placed in an escrow account and is not released until an inspector verifies that the improvements are installed and will achieve the desired energy savings. Due to both the complicated nature of EEMs and a lack of awareness of them, the Federal Housing Authority has typically issued only about 30,000 EEMs per year.

To address that issue, Section 2902 of the new act requires the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to develop recommendations to eliminate the barriers to the use of EEMs, including the lack of reliable and accessible information on such mortgages, the confusion regarding underwriting requirements, the complex and time-consuming process of securing such mortgages, the lack of publicly available research on the default risk of such mortgages, and the limited availability of certified or accredited home energy rating services. HUD must report its recommendations to Congress within the next six months. The act also calls for HUD to carry out an education and outreach campaign for consumers, home builders, residential lenders, and other real estate professionals on EEMs and on the benefits of energy efficiency in housing.

In addition, Section 2123 of the act increases the limits for cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. For most homebuyers, the cost of improvements can now be nearly 5% of the property value, while it was previously limited to $8,000. But the act also limits the number of energy efficient mortgages to 5% of the number of mortgages for 1- to 4-family residences insured by HUD during the preceding fiscal year. See President Bush's signing announcement, the full text of the act (PDF 629 KB), and the HUD Web page on the Energy Efficient Mortgage Program.

GM and Utilities to Study how Plug-In Hybrids Connect to the Grid
General Motors Corporation (GM) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) announced in late July that they will team up to study the integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with the electrical grid. Plug-in hybrids run on battery power for short trips, but include an engine to recharge the batteries for extended trips. As a result, for most commutes the plug-in hybrid will use battery power only, burning no fuel at all, while on long trips the plug-in hybrid should have a fuel economy similar to today's hybrid vehicles. The cost of running on battery power is currently about one-fifth the cost of fueling with gasoline. But to meet the need for recharging these vehicles without straining the electrical grid, they must recharge during off-peak hours, such as late at night or early in the morning. Such "smart charging" was demonstrated by GridPoint, Inc. and Duke Energy in late March. The vehicles could also serve as an emergency power source, or they could provide supplemental power to the electrical grid during peak demand periods, such as unusually hot days. See the GridPoint press release.


GM Vice Chairman Bob Lutz introduced the Chevrolet Volt concept vehicle at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan, in 2007. Enlarge this image.
Credit: Jeffrey Sauger, ©GM Corp.

The new collaboration between GM and EPRI will cover everything from codes and standards to grid capability of plug-in hybrids. While the collaboration will largely focus on safe and convenient vehicle charging, it will also examine how "smart grid" technologies can interact with plug-in hybrids. A smart grid is more interactive than today's electrical grid and could network with plug-in hybrids to optimize their charging times or to draw power from them when needed. Thirty four utilities from throughout the country will participate in the collaboration. GM is currently developing two plug-in hybrids: the Chevrolet Volt, which has been approved for production in 2010, and the Saturn Vue plug-in hybrid, which the company also intends to launch in 2010. EPRI formed a similar collaboration with Ford Motor Company in late March, and the Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) has also launched a similar program. See the press releases on the GM agreement from GM and EPRI, the press releases on the Ford agreement from Ford and EPRI, and the Michigan PSC press release.

Electric vehicles produce no pollution while running, but of course they depend on an electric power system that does produce pollution. While some people have expressed concern that this is just shifting the pollution from one source to another, a study released last year by EPRI and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) found that plug-in hybrids have significant environmental benefits. In fact, the widespread adoption of the vehicles could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 450 million metric tons per year by 2050, equal to removing 82.5 million of today's cars from the road. The study also found that if plug-in hybrids achieve 60% of the market for new cars by 2050, they will still consume only 7-8% of the nation's electricity. A separate study found that plug-in hybrids will have a small but significant benefit in terms on nationwide emissions of pollutants, while reducing petroleum consumption by 3-4 million barrels per day by 2050. Studies by DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) also concluded that a large percentage of U.S. vehicles could be powered using off-peak electricity. See the EPRI press release (PDF 40 KB), the EPRI reports, the ORNL press release, and the PNNL study (PDF 417 KB). Download Adobe Reader.

Assistant Secretary Alexander Karsner Announces Resignation
Alexander Karsner, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, has announced his resignation, effective as of August 30. As the Assistant Secretary, Karsner managed DOE's $1.2 billion portfolio of applied science, research, development, and deployment for energy efficiency and renewable energy. Karsner was nominated by President Bush in December 2005, and after being unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate, he was sworn in by Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman in March 2006. Since then, Karsner has been key in several initiatives, including the Advanced Energy Initiative, which provided a 22% increase in funding for clean energy technology research; the "Twenty in Ten" vision, which aims to reduce gasoline use in the United States by 20% in the next 10 years; the "Bali Roadmap," which was established at the U.N. Convention and the Major Economies Meetings and presents an international, post-2012 climate change and energy security framework; and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. See the DOE press release.

Energy Connections
Study Finds a Large Supply of Natural Gas in U.S. Shale Formations
A new study from Navigant Consulting and the American Clean Skies Foundation (ACSF) suggests that the United States has ample supplies of natural gas in "unconventional" sources such as shale formations, coal beds, and so-called tight sands, which are geologic formations with low permeability to natural gas. The report finds the most potential in shale formations, estimating that the seven largest U.S. formations will yield at least 27 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas per day, equal to about 43% of the current natural gas consumption in the United States. That diverges from projections of DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA), which predicts 26 Bcf per day of natural gas from all unconventional sources by 2030, even though tight sands are currently producing 5.8 Bcf per day and coalbed methane is producing 4.1 Bcf per day.

But both EIA and the new study agree on one fact: the largest current source of shale gas, the Barnett Shale formation in Texas, is a major unconventional resource. Located under Fort Worth, it now accounts for 6% of natural gas production in the lower 48 states, thanks to wells that run a mile-and-a-half deep, then run horizontally for about a mile. On the downside, drilling rigs are now located at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and within the Fort Worth city limits and "are headed downtown," according to the EIA. See the ACSF press release, the Navigant study (PDF 9.9 MB), and the EIA's "Energy in Brief" on recent trends in U.S. natural gas production. Download Adobe Reader.

The EIA currently projects essentially steady U.S. production of natural gas, declining Canadian imports, and increasing demand, causing the United States to import about 7.7 Bcf per day of liquefied natural gas, or LNG, by 2030. That increasing dependence on imports, and the price volatility that may accompany it, has discouraged an overdependence on natural gas in the electric utility sector and may also be discouraging its use for vehicles. But if unconventional natural gas resources truly pan out as predicted by the Navigant report, they may encourage a greater shift away from the use of coal and petroleum resources. Note that the EIA projections also depend on a natural gas pipeline connecting Alaska to the lower 48 states in 2020, increasing Alaska's production from today's level of about 1.1 Bcf per day to about 5.5 Bcf per day within a few years of its completion. That prospect became more certain last week, when Alaska passed legislation to award a license to TransCanada Alaska to permit, develop, and build the natural gas pipeline. See the section from the EIA's "Annual Energy Outlook 2008" on natural gas and see the announcement on the pipeline from Alaska Governor Sarah Palin.

This newsletter is funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and is also available on the EERE Web site. You can subscribe to the EERE Network News using our simple online form, and you can also update your email address, add a subscription to EERE Progress Alerts, or unsubscribe using our "Change My Subscription" page.

If you have questions or comments about this newsletter, please contact the editor, Kevin Eber.

You are currently subscribed as: ftcua8@comcast.net

Tuesday, August 5, 2008

NSLS.BNL.GOV

http://www.nsls.bnl.gov/newsroom/news/2007/06-Users_Meeting.htm

DOE.GOV

http://sc.doe.gov/bes/presentations/recent.html

Businesses in China

American Dairy is the largest dairy company in China.
AgFeed Corp sells premixed food for livestock, particularly hogs.
Agria Corp produces corn seed and sheep breeding products.
Chaoda Modern Agriculture is China's largest vegetable and fruit grower.
China Green Agriculture makes humic acid, a liquid fertilizer.
China Mengniu Dairy is another Chinese dairy producer.
China Organic Agriculture is one of the largest producers of organic rice in the world.
Global Bio-Chem Technology deals in corn starch, corn sweeteners, and corn feed.
Origin Agritech makes bioengineered rice, corn, canola, and cotton seeds.
New Oriental Energy & Chemical manufactures urea, a chemical used for fertilizer.
Sinofert is a major Chinese fertilizer distributor.

True or False?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GNI_per_capita

Brookhaven National Laboratory(BNL) Discoveries

Brookhaven Discoveries

Here are just a few of the many discoveries, developments, inventions and innovations that Brookhaven scientists have made in the last 50 years.

Top Ten Scientific Discoveries

Six Nobel Prizes, five in physics and one in chemistry (for more information:
Courant-Snyder strong focusing principle, critical to the design of all modern particle accelerators
The Green-Chasman lattice, a design for electron storage rings that was first implemented at Brookhaven’s National Synchrotron Light Source and since adopted by many of the world’s synchrotron radiation facilities
Theories and experiments to determine the mechanisms underlying high-temperature superconductors
Study of the effects of radiation on biological systems, important to cancer treatment and prevention and to human space travel
A way to produce vast quantities of gene products, using a virus known as T7
Development of fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, or FDG-18, now used in nearly every clinical positron emission tomography scan done in hospitals around the world
Important studies of the brain, including those uncovering the roots of psychiatric disorders, brain metabolism and drug addiction
Large-scale studies of the effect of increased carbon dioxide on ecosystems
At Brookhaven’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, discovery of a perfect liquid – a type of matter thought by scientists to have existed microseconds after the Big Bang.
Biomedical Sciences
Advances in nuclear medicine, including:

The development of technetium-99m, now used to diagnose heart disease and other ailments in over 11 million Americans each year. BNL researchers have also developed a simple-to-use kit to allow doctors to easily label blood with Tc-99m; this kit is used over 200,000 times a year.
The development of thallium-201, now used in hundreds of thousands of heart stress-tests each year.
The development of tin-117m, a promising agent for easing the pain of bone cancer without sedation.
Discoveries to aid pharmaceutical design, including:

Structural studies of the Lyme disease protein used in a new, effective vaccine
Development of a technique to study viral and bacterial proteins while they are embedded in the cellular membrane.
X-ray and neutron scattering facilities that have made possible countless studies of molecular structures important to disease.
Development of an effective database to store structural information about biomolecules that can be accessed by researchers in academia and industry to "rationally" design pharmaceuticals.
Development of novel medical therapies and concepts, including:

Boron neutron capture therapy, currently showing promise for the treatment of brain tumors in a clinical trial.
Use of L-dopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (still the gold standard for treatment)
X-ray angiography for non-invasive heart imaging
Link between salt and hypertension
Studies on radiation-induced malignancies and DNA repair
Important tools for biomedical research, including:

A way to produce vast quantities of gene products, using a virus known as T7
Tritiated thymidine, a way to tag molecules with short-lived radioactivity for easier examination
Methods for attaching heavy metal atoms to important molecules, such as antibodies, for easier imaging using electron microscopes
Techniques for sequencing large segments of DNA rapidly
Method for synthesizing insulin, paving the way for production of insulin by recombinant DNA
Advances in medical imaging, and the use of imaging in research, including:

Development of some of the first agents for positron emission tomography scanning; one BNL-developed agent, 18-FDG, is now used in nearly every clinical PET scan done in hospitals around the world
Important studies of the brain, including the roots of drug addiction (e.g. first image of cocaine in the brain, discovery of enzyme deficit in smokers' brains), psychiatric disorders, and brain metabolism
Environmental Sciences
Response of plants and trees to radiation exposure
Metal hydrides for better hydrogen storage in fuel cells
Building and studying of demonstration houses with alternative-energy and energy-saving features
Invention of better, cleaner, more efficient oil burners and devices to aid clean and efficient oil burning
Development of chemically inert tracers and detectors to track the environmental impact of power plants
Better, safer, more convenient natural gas storage options for alternative-fuel vehicles
Facilities that allow studies of environmental technologies and phenomena: polymers used to clean up oil spills, examination of sandstone porosity for more efficient oil-field exploration, and the effect of cosmic radiation on tissue
Large-scale studies of the effect of increased carbon dioxide on ecosystems
Oceanographic studies of plankton populations to gauge ocean health and climate change potential; also research into the cause of mysterious "brown tide" algae blooms
Harnessing natural bacteria to clean up environmental pollution and purify crude oil
Studies of air pollution, including smog and particulates
Computer models of atmospheric radiation (important for climate change), groundwater movement, and energy use impact in developing nations
New techniques for encapsulating hazardous waste for storage and disposal, including glass, plastic and concrete
Technology & Energy
Advanced technology basic research and development, including:

Basic research on superconductors for better communications technology
Advanced computer chip design
Better batteries using advanced electrolyte materials
Magnetically levitated trains
Advanced coatings for corrosion prevention
Polymer composite materials for construction and road repair
Facility for testing the resistance of satellite computer circuits to cosmic ray damage
Polyplanar video display screen
World’s first video game
Nuclear safety achievements, including:

Assistance to former Soviet states for safeguarding of nuclear materials
Reactor safety analysis, including safety systems and human error
Assistance to former Soviet states for reactor safety
Important early research on reactor physics that led to development of light-water reactors

Top Ten Consumer-Oriented Discoveries
Technetium-99m, the leading radiotracer used in the diagnosis of heart disease and other ailments in millions of people each year
Synthetic insulin
Thallium-201, used in heart stress tests
Use of L-dopa to treat Parkinson’s disease
Link between salt and hypertension
Magnetically levitated trains
Environmentally cleaner, more efficient oil burners and devices to aid clean and efficient oil-burning
Advanced coatings for corrosion prevention
Advanced computer chip design
World’s first video game
Physical Sciences
Discoveries that shaped our understanding of the atom and the universe, including:

Precise measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, or "muon g-2". The value of muon g-2 is a very sensitive test of the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics.
First evidence for the exotic meson, a new breed of subatomic particle whose existence helps validate the central theory of modern physics, called the standard model.
Detection of a rare kaon decay, thought to happen only once or twice in every 10 billion decays and perhaps an indicator of new phenomena that cannot be explained by the Standard Model.
Pioneering solar neutrino studies that sought an answer to the mystery of the "missing" neutrinos from our solar system's sun, and neutrino bursts from supernovae. BNL researcher Raymond Davis Jr.'s work in this area led to a Nobel Prize in 2002.
Discovery of the muon neutrino, which opened a new field of study and which won the Nobel Prize in 1988.
Discovery of CP violation, which showed a flaw in the belief that the universe is symmetrical, and which won the Nobel Prize in 1980.
Co-discovery of the J/psi particle, which won the Nobel Prize in 1976
Theoretical work on parity violation, based on data from BNL's Cosmotron, which won the Nobel Prize in 1957
First examples of three dynamical symmetries in atomic nuclei, which opened up a new approach to studying the structure of the atomic nucleus.
First application of computing to study systems with many degrees of freedom, for studies of radiation damage to crystal structures and studies of magnetism.
Development of Monte Carlo methods for exploring the interaction of atoms and particles, and other systems with many variables.
First direct evidence for the existence of "glueballs"
Discovery of the K meson and the first vector meson.
Discovery of the Omega-minus particle in 1964.
Discovery of the charmed baryon particle in 1975.
Discovery of the neutral and negative sigma baryons.
Experimental confirmation of the theory of associated production of strange particles.
Discovery of the phi vector meson
Discovery of the the antiparticles anti-Xi-minus and anti-Xi-zero
At Brookhaven’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, discovery of a perfect liquid – a type of matter thought by scientists to have existed microseconds after the Big Bang.
Important contributions to the development of accelerator technology for worldwide use in physics and other fields, including:

The Courant - Snyder strong focusing principle, crucial to the existence of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, and all modern circular accelerators.
The Green - Chasman lattice that optimizes photon source parameters, first implemented at the
National Synchrotron Light Source and since adopted by many of the world's state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facilities.
The Palmer two-in-one magnet design has been chosen for the Large Hadron Collider, now under construction at CERN
The laser-photocathode RF gun developed at the Accelerator Test Facility, which has become a world-wide standard of high-brightness electron guns.
Work that helped humankind understand and exploit the properties of existing and new solid materials, including:

Discovery of a new class of materials, called colossal magnetoresistive materials, that exhibit dramatic changes in electrical resistance when exposed to a magnetic field.
Theories and experiments to determine the mechanisms underlying high-temperature superconductors
Techniques for studying magnetism with X-rays and neutrons
Studies of metal hydrides and other organometallic compounds for various industrial uses, including storage of hydrogen gas for alternative-fuel vehicles
Structural studies of materials under extreme conditions
Pioneering work using X-rays and neutrons to study biological specimens, leading to the modern science of structural biology
Important contributions to chemistry research, including:

Surface studies on metallic layers, adhesives, and more
Studies of chemical reactions using super-fast lasers
Studies of hydrogen bonding in biological molecules
Development of techniques for radiodating of art and artifacts using neutron activation
Understanding of and uses for radiation, including:

Development of early irradiation facilities for food safety, plant breeding, and medical supply sterilization
Testing of the spaceworthiness of satellite and spacecraft parts with heavy ions produced in BNL accelerators
Studies of the effect of radiation on biologial systems important to manned space travel, and to cancer treatment and prevention
Measurement of radiation sensitivity and damage in metals, crystals, and living plant and animal tissue
Measurements of wear in engine parts, which led to the development of multi-grade motor oils such as 10W-30
Development of radionuclides for the life sciences and medicine

World Population and List of Countries according to Wikipedia Encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population

NOVA Series-PBS

_____________________________________________________________________
Next on NOVA scienceNOW
With Neil deGrasse Tyson

http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow/

Wednesday, August 6 at 9 p.m.
(Check your local listings as dates and times may vary.)

This broadcast looks at attempts to build a space elevator, how we
age, a new technique for finding Maya ruins, and a profile of
biologist Bonnie Bassler.

Aging
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3401/01.html
Will research into "longevity genes" help us live longer and
healthier lives?

Space Elevator
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3401/02.html
Can we build a 22,000-mile-high cable to transport cargo and
people into space?

Maya
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3401/03.html
NASA archeologists use satellites to pinpoint ancient ruins
buried deep in the jungle.

Profile: Bonnie Bassler
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3401/04.html
Her insight into how bacteria "talk" has launched a revolution
in biological and medical research.

The journey continues on the NOVA scienceNOW Web site. Watch the
entire hour-long episode online starting August 7. E-mail scientists
from the broadcast with your questions, explore a 2,000-year-old
Maya mural, read an interview with physicist and space elevator
visionary Brad Edwards, find out what all the hoopla is about SIR2
and how it can slow down aging (at least in yeast). And watch video
extras.

Also, Links & Books, the Teacher's Guide, the program transcript,
and more:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Thank you for visiting NOVA scienceNOW. We welcome your questions,
comments, and feedback. You can send a message directly to NOVA
scienceNOW at
novasciencenow@wgbh.org

Or use our feedback form at
http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow/feedback/

You are subscribed to the NOVA scienceNOW mailing list.
To unsubscribe, go to
http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow/subscribe/un.html -- or send an
e-mail to majordomo@franz.wgbh.org and, on a line by itself in the
message, type: unsubscribe nova-sciencenow

Funding for NOVA scienceNOW is provided by Pfizer, the National
Science Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Alfred
P. Sloan Foundation, and public television viewers.
_____________________________________________________________________

Friday, August 1, 2008

EARTHQUAKE

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/

http://www.seismic.ca.gov/hog.html

http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/

http://www.earthquakeauthority.com/

http://www.fema.gov/assistance/process/guide.shtm

http://quake.abag.ca.gov/fixit/

http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/kids.html

http://www.fema.gov/kids/

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/

http://redcrossshop.org/

http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/0,1082,0_500_,00.html

http://www.oes.ca.gov

http://www.fema.gov/about/process/

http://www.ncua.gov/Publications/brochures/EmergencyFinancialFirstAidKit.pdf

http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/beprepared/FinRecovery/

http://www.sba.gov/disaster_recov/index.html

http://www.cisn.org/

http://www.anss.org/

Thursday, July 31, 2008

Isla Earth

http://www.islaearth.org/radioStations.php

Purdue.edu

More Sustainability Research

Purdue Interdisciplinary Center for Ecological Sustainability

(PICES): www.purdue.edu/pices/

Purdue Climate Change Research Center(PCCRC): www.purdue.edu/climate/

Energy Center at Discovery Park: www.purdue.edu/discoverypark/energy/

Center for the Environmental(C4E): www.purdue.edu/discoverypark/environment/

LORRE Integrative Center for Biotechnology and Engineering:
http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~lorre/16/overview/index.shtml

Global Sustainable Industrial Systems(GSIS): https://engineering.purdue/edu/Engr/Research/Initiatives/GSIS/

Tidbit: do you know that the 11th President of Purdue University, Dr. France Cordova, is the sister of a former classmate of mine in Statistics II at Purdue in second semester of 1976-1977 school year.

He was one of 3 classmates, the others are a Taiwanese, an American Risk Assessment Section Chief now at Notre Dame U, and I. I got A+ in that class and they also all got A.

He was older than France. France and I talked on the phone. I donated to the President's Fund as an alumna of Purdue. Also the School of Health Sciences.

sample of ARCAMAX Gardening Daily Tips July 31, 2008

Begin forwarded message:
From: "ArcaMax Gardening Tips"
Date: July 31, 2008 1:30:15 AM EDT
To: ftcua8@comcast.net
Subject: ArcaMax Gardening Daily Tips for Thursday July 31, 2008

Having trouble seeing this email? View the most recent issue or stories from previous issues.


Win a trip from Hallmark Channel.
Earn bonus entries! Learn more.
www.ArcaMax.com | ArcaMundo.com | News | Books | Comics | Games | Subscribe | My Account

Gardening Daily Tips
For Florence
Thursday July 31, 2008

Rose (Rosa x)
Q&A: Residual Pesticides Harmful To Beneficial Insects?
Q&A: Deformed Summer Squash
Tip: Cover Crop with Buckwheat
News on the Presidential Race
Reader Photos

Rose (Rosa x) Today's Featured Plant
Rose (Rosa x)

Read the full profile of this plant at ArcaMax.com.

Interested in reading about other plants? Search through hundreds of plant profiles and helpful articles by keyword.
Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
Q&A: Residual Pesticides Harmful To Beneficial Insects?

Question: Last year I sprayed my garden with insecticides to rid it of a very bad white fly infestation. This year I would like to tackle the problem with beneficial insects. Will the pesticides I used last year harm the good insects I bring into my garden this year?

Answer: It can be quite rewarding to see ladybeetles, praying mantis, and lacewings in the garden, munching on pest insects. If there is pesticide residue it could be a problem. But over time, if you refrain from spraying insecticides, the beneficial insects will arrive on their own to consume the pests. Whiteflies can be tackled with strong blasts of water from the hose on a daily basis, or with a soapy water spray, which is less toxic to other insects. Also, be aware that there must be pests for the beneficials to consume when you release them, or they will go elsewhere, which is sometimes disappointing to gardeners.

Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
Q&A: Deformed Summer Squash

Question: Ours and our neighbor's summer squash have gnarled and lumpy blossom ends. What is wrong?

Answer: A few possibilities come to mind. If the baby squash are just emerging, it could be that the female blossoms weren't pollinated. This sometimes happens early in the season, before the male blossoms appear. It can also happen during cool spells when pollinators are less active.

However, it could be a fungal or bacterial disease. The wet scar formed when the flower detaches from the fruit is a prime site for infection if conditions are right. Cultural techniques like not overwatering, using a drip watering system rather than constant overhead sprinkling (wet plants create a perfect environment for disease), and growing vines on a trellis to improve air circulation all will help significantly. Mulching with a layer of dry organic material such as straw can help reduce the problem somewhat but is not a 100% solution. Try these cultural practices and see if there's improvement.

Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
Tip: Cover Crop with Buckwheat

Bridge the gap between early crops and later plantings by planting a soil-improving cover crop of buckwheat. Buckwheat germinates and grows quickly in warm soil, maturing within 40 days. Cut and till it under just before flowering.

Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
News on the Presidential Race

Keep up with the latest news on the upcoming elections with a free subscription to ArcaMax Politics.

All week, you'll receive the latest news from D.C., as well as views from both the left and right. Read columns by Patrick Buchanan, Arianna Huffington, and more. Or take a look at the lighter side of politics with cartoons from award-winning artists like Chip Bok, and political satire from Andy Borowitz.

Subscribe to ArcaMax Politics instantly.

Find out more before subscribing.

-- From the ArcaMax editors

Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
Today's Reader Submitted Photos

Click an image above to see full size and read caption.


To see more of our subscriber photos visit our full Photo Gallery.

Enter your Gardening Daily Tips pictures so you can show them off to other readers right here in this ezine and on the ArcaMax.com Web site. Click here to submit your photo.

Sincerely,
ArcaMax Editors

Recent Stories
Q&A: Lawn Needs Renovation
Q&A: Bringing Coleus Indoors
Tip: Stop Summer Pruning and Fertilizing
Abelia, Glossy (Abelia x grandiflora)
Q&A: Rose Canker
More From ArcaMax Publishing
Newsletters: Comics - Knowledge - Lifestyles - News - More

Classic Books: Fiction - Non Fiction - Short Stories - Sci Fi - More

More: Quizzes - Sudoku - Crossword - Weather - Sports - Columns

En Español: Ultimas Noticias - Tiras Comicas - Deportes - Soduko

Ad Free Newsletter
ArcaMax publications are now available in an "advertising-free" format.
Please click here for details.




Quick Clicks
Stop Dreading Mondays, click to learn to live 7 days of Saturdays
Get a 14 day free trial of ALL Natural Acai Berry Cleanse
*Save up to 90% on InkJets* *Great Prices - Laser Toner* Go To www.InkJetsRus.net & SAVE
World Wide Data Entry Workers Needed - At Home Work. Details here
RegistrySmart: 1-Click PC error diagnostics & repair. Try it free.
Can You Type? At Home Work. Start Earning CA$H Immediately. Details here
How To Start Your Own Online Dollar Store - Free Kit Here



Sponsored Articles
Learn Spanish with the "Spanish Word of the Day"

Make sure this email gets to your inbox (and not your junk folder): just add ezines@arcamax.com to your e-mail address book or safe list. Thank you!


ArcaMax Publishing, Inc.
729 Thimble Shoals Blvd. Suite 1-B
Newport News, VA 23606
Fax: (757) 596-9731

ArcaMax Publishing is a leading publisher of family-friendly newsletters, featuring popular comics, games, feature columns and books by email. Thank you for reading the "Gardening Daily Tips" newsletter. You are subscribed with the following email address:
ftcua8@comcast.net

Please feel free to forward this email on to your friends!

Advertise in ArcaMax Newsletters
Family-friendly consumer content to 5 million subscribers
Free online advertising tips & tools


Contact information for recent advertisers. Consumer Online Buying Guide: FTC Tips for shopping online Answers to our most frequently asked questions. Contact Customer Service Have a question or comment about an article you read in one of our ezines?
Copyright © 2008 ArcaMax Publishing, Inc. and its licensors.
All registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Population of the World from Wikipedia Encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Department of Education-Private Schools

http://www.deped.gov.ph/private/private.asp?sec=&pageno=8&keyword=&sort=&iwant2=&schtype=private

Monday, July 28, 2008

Purdue.edu

http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008b/080717SandsLighting.html

http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008b/080702DaviesHerrick.html

MSDS Adhesives

http://www.stickwithpl.com/msds_new.aspx

Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Sarnoff, SRI International

http://www.sarnoff.com

http://www.sri.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CMOS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charge-coupled_device

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET

Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Arcamax Home and Consumers

Home and Consumer
For Florence
Tuesday July 22, 2008

Home Office Safety
Free Weather Forecasts by E-Mail
Home Office Safety

Akhil Shahani
While working from a home office presents several advantages, it also entails many concerns that are not faced by people working in a traditional workplace setting. One of the major issues is ensuring safety for you, your employees and clients. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, workplaces with less than 10 employees experience a disproportionate number of work-related deaths. And home-based businesses top that list. We've put together a checklist of the most common home office hazards. Use the following guide on home office safety to learn how to protect yourself, your people and your business:

- Walk areas: Falls are one of the most common causes of home accidents. So take steps to ensure that it doesn't happen. Keep floor surfaces level and dry; carpets need to be well secured to the floor to avoid tripping. Do not have electrical or telephone cords in walkways. Stairs with four or more steps should be equipped with handrails.

- Fire hazards: Fire is one of the greatest potential dangers in a home office. Keep combustible materials to a minimum and dispose of trash promptly. Install a working smoke detector and fire extinguisher at your workspace. Plan a fire escape route and keep all fire exits free and clear of any obstacles. Have regularly scheduled fire drills.

- Electrical outlets: Have a qualified electrician check your electrical circuits and install additional outlets. All circuit breakers or fuse panels should be labeled and accessible. Make sure your electrical components have sufficient ventilation. Home office safety is greatly enhanced when electrical plugs, cords, panels and receptacles are maintained in good condition. Computer equipment should be connected to a surge protector. Phone lines, electrical cords and extension wires should be secured under a desk or alongside a baseboard.

- Air quality: Poor air quality in the home office can cause or exacerbate a number of respiratory ailments. To avoid this, work in a well-ventilated area. Use fans to increase air circulation. Ban smoking within the office. Properly handle office chemicals and store them in a safe and secure storage area. Install a carbon monoxide detector.

- Computer set up: Workstations should be arranged in such a way that they are comfortable and do not cause unnecessary strain on the back, arms or neck. Computers should be placed either on a desk of standard height or in a workstation specifically designed for their use. A computer chair with good back and arm support and position should be used and the keyboard should be placed directly in front you at approximately elbow height.

- Child safety: If you have young children and expect them to spend any time in your home office, it is imperative that you "childproof" your working space. Keep all sharp office implements away and out of reach of small children. Cover unused sockets with plastic covers. Use a surge protector with an on-off switch that can easily turn off the source of power. Consider keeping your children out of the work areas in the larger interest of home office safety.

- Other common practices: Do not store any item on top of tall cabinets or other furniture. Limit storage to designated areas. Do not locate file cabinets near entrances or heavily-walked through areas where open drawers can become a hazard. Do not open more than one file drawer at a time as this can cause the cabinet to tip over. Unless in use, store common office equipment like scissors, letter openers and staplers safely in a drawer or other secure location. Chairs and office furnishings should be structurally sound so that their usage does not cause injury.

You should have an adequately stocked first aid kit and be ready to seek medical treatment, if necessary. Home office safety and the prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses should be one of the top priorities on your list when running a business from your house.

========

Hi, I'm Akhil Shahani, a serial entrepreneur who wants to help you succeed. If you like to work smart, check out http://www.SmartEntrepreneur.net It's full of articles and resources to help you start and grow your business successfully. Please visit us & download our special "Freebie of The Month" at http://www.smartentrepreneur.net/freebie-of-the-month.html

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Akhil_Shahani
http://EzineArticles.com/?Home-Office-Safety&id=1327786

Comment on this Story | Printer Friendly | Send Story to a Friend | Top
Free Weather Forecasts by E-Mail

Don't get caught in the rain without your umbrella -- stay up to date with the latest conditions with the new ArcaMax Weather ezine!

Subscribers to this free ezine will receive daily forecasts, local conditions, and the latest radar every morning by e-mail.

Subscribe to ArcaMax Weather instantly.

Find out more before subscribing.

-- From the ArcaMax editors


Recent Stories
Home Improvements - Shop Safety 101
Home Improvements on a Budget
Fix a Leaky Shower Faucet - Easy and Fast
CPSC: Infant Garments Recalled by Rashti & Rashti Due to Choking Hazard
Drink Tap Water for Your Health … and Wealth!

More From ArcaMax Publishing
Newsletters: Comics - Knowledge - Lifestyles - News - More

Classic Books: Fiction - Non Fiction - Short Stories - Sci Fi - More

More: Quizzes - Sudoku - Crossword - Weather - Sports - Columns

En Español: Ultimas Noticias - Tiras Comicas - Deportes - Soduko

Ad Free Newsletter
ArcaMax publications are now available in an "advertising-free" format.
Please click here for details.



Quick Clicks
Stop Dreading Mondays, click to learn to live 7 days of Saturdays
Loose weight the easy way 14 Day Free Trial Green Tea - GO!
*Save up to 90% on InkJets* *Great Prices - Laser Toner* Go To www.InkJetsRus.net & SAVE
World Wide Data Entry Workers Needed - At Home Work. Details here
Get Free of excess weight & toxins! Acai Berry Free Trial Cleanse Your Body Today.
Can You Type? At Home Work. Start Earning CA$H Immediately. Details here
Why pay over $90 a month for Cable or Sat.TV services? Download A TV!



Sponsored Articles
Learn Spanish with the "Spanish Word of the Day"

Make sure this email gets to your inbox (and not your junk folder): just add ezines@arcamax.com to your e-mail address book or safe list. Thank you!


ArcaMax Publishing, Inc.
729 Thimble Shoals Blvd. Suite 1-B
Newport News, VA 23606
Fax: (757) 596-9731

ArcaMax Publishing is a leading publisher of family-friendly newsletters, featuring popular comics, games, feature columns and books by email. Thank you for reading the "Home and Consumer" newsletter. You are subscribed with the following email address:
ftcua8@comcast.net

Please feel free to forward this email on to your friends!

Advertise in ArcaMax Newsletters
Family-friendly consumer content to 5 million subscribers
Free online advertising tips & tools


My Account Unsubscribe Advertiser's Directory FAQ / Help Contact the Editor
Manage your subscriptions, change your email address and more... Contact information for recent advertisers. Consumer Online Buying Guide: FTC Tips for shopping online Answers to our most frequently asked questions. Contact Customer Service Have a question or comment about an article you read in one of our ezines?
Copyright © 2008 ArcaMax Publishing, Inc. and its licensors.
All registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Monday, July 21, 2008

NOVA Series-PBS

From: owner-nova-sciencenow@franz.wgbh.org (NOVA scienceNOW)
Date: July 21, 2008 2:00:56 PM EDT
To: nova-sciencenow@franz.wgbh.org (NOVA scienceNOW Bulletin)
Subject: [NOVA scienceNOW] July 23, 2008

_____________________________________________________________________
Next on NOVA scienceNOW
With Neil deGrasse Tyson

http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow/

Wednesday, July 23 at 9 p.m.
(Check your local listings as dates and times may vary.)

Host Neil deGrasse Tyson explores the wonderful world of leeches,
searches for intelligent alien life with SETI, examines a
breakthrough that could allow for embryonic stem-cell research
without the embryo, and goes deep-sea diving with
marine-bioluminescence specialist Edith Widder.

Leeches
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/0305/01.html
A century after falling out of favor among doctors, medicinal
leeches are back in hospitals, sucking away on patients' wounds.

The Search for ET
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/0305/02.html
Astronomers have their radio telescopes tuned to receive signals
from alien worlds, but is anybody out there?

Stem Cells Breakthrough
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/0305/03.html
Three separate teams overcome a biomedical hurdle -- creating
stem cells without the use of human embryos.

Profile: Edith Widder
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/0305/04.html
Meet a marine biologist and explorer who has engineered new ways
to spy on deep-sea creatures.

The journey continues on the NOVA scienceNOW Web site. Watch the
entire hour-long episode online starting July 24. E-mail scientists
from the broadcast with your questions, try your hand at calculating
how many intelligent civilizations might be in our galaxy, find
articles on stem-cell research, check out bizarre ocean creatures
that use light to lure prey, and watch video extras.

Also, Links & Books, the Teacher's Guide, the program transcript,
and more:

http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Thank you for visiting NOVA scienceNOW. We welcome your questions,
comments, and feedback. You can send a message directly to NOVA
scienceNOW at
novasciencenow@wgbh.org

Or use our feedback form at
http://www.pbs.org/nova/sciencenow/feedback/

You are subscribed to the NOVA scienceNOW mailing list.

Funding for NOVA scienceNOW is provided by Pfizer, the National
Science Foundation, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Alfred
P. Sloan Foundation, and public television viewers.
_____________________________________________________________________
NOVA

United States Department of Energy(USDOE)

http://www.doe.gov/